List of chromosomes

Chromosome 19

Chromosome 19 Chromosome 19

our blood at 7.59 a.m.

When life begins to form, the very first cell divides into two perfectly identical copies, which divide into two more copies that are identical too, and so on. Despite this, at a given time, one cell will become a brain cell, and another a blood cell. Though each of these cells has exactly the same genes, at one point during embryogenesis, they will specialise by using only the genes they need. It is one of the wonders of Nature.

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wrong place

ATP13A1: Gene coding for a protein required to remove mitochondrial transmembrane proteins which are mistargeted to other subcellular compartments (notably the endoplasmic reticulum).

In the beginning

TPRX1: this gene encodes one of the proteins that is expressed shortly after fertilization and is required for zygote genome activation (ZGA). ZGA is critical for embryo development and marks the very first transcription event in a new life.

a sixth sense?

VN1R1/VN1R2/VN1R4: Groups of genes which code for pheromone receptors.

a sweet story

INSR: Gene involved in the regulation of blood sugar levels. This gene codes for the insulin receptor.


GPX4: Gene coding for a protein that plays a key role in protecting cells against the oxidation of certain lipids.

taxi for fat

ApoE: This gene codes for a protein which transports fats in our blood, and may indicate a predisposition to Alzheimers disease.


DBP: This gene may be involved in epilepsy. The gene was discovered by the cleaning staff while vacuuming the animal care facilities at the University of Geneva!


STRN4: This gene codes for Zinedine, a protein that was discovered by researchers in Marseille, the famous football player’s home city.

calcium sensitive

CALM3: This gene codes for the calmodulin protein which senses changes in calcium concentration and transmits the information to other proteins.

an opening for polio

PVR: This gene codes for a protein that lets the poliovirus enter our cells.

a bowl of fresh air

TSHZ3: This gene is involved in regulating our breathing.

cellular abundance

CCNE1: This gene is involved in cell proliferation.

an Olympic medal?

EPOR: This gene codes for the EPO receptor, a hormone involved in producing red cells. Variations in this gene are associated with a high rate of red cells in the blood. Eero Mäntyranta, a Finnish athlete, has one of these particular variations of the gene and won a gold medal during the 1964 Winter Olympic Games. Did he benefit from it?

a certain flair

OR7D4: Gene involved in the perception of smell.

only for boys

AMH: This gene is involved in the development of male sexual organs.

eternal youth?

KISS1R: If this gene is defective, puberty is stalled. A way of staying young?