On the one hand, we have specialised: liver and intestinal for instance. On the other hand, each type of does different things at different times of the day. As an example, after a good meal, our intestinal produce which will help us digest. When the sun sets, certain brain will start producing which are involved in sleep. And if you have had the misfortune of catching the flu, immune will be activated to help you get rid of the infection.
How can scientists know whatare doing in a given at a given time? The answer is by studying the which are present in the at that time. This is the field of ‘ ’. helps to identify not only but also to compare their production following the intake of medication for example, whilst on a diet or even during the day/night cycle.
Researchers thus have the tools they need to observewhich are produced in our blood at 7.59 in the morning for instance, but also one week after a given treatment. What are these tools?
In the laboratory, scientists know how to separateaccording to their size and their electric charge on a gel. The technique is called 2D gel electrophoresis. Once the have been separated, scientists can study a collection of dots spread across the gel; each dot is a specific . But which ? The gel is then scanned and analysed with the help of programs. Each dot – or – is then identified by comparing the collection with other collections that are already known.
Over 600 dots were identified on this map thanks to computer programs. The images and their interpretation are then stored in public.