List of chromosomes

Chromosomes xx

Chromosomes xx Chromosomes xx

more neurons?

TKTL1: a mutation present in this gene in modern humans seems to drive greater neuron growth than does an ancient hominin version present in Neanderthals and non-human primates.

Gender and COVID-19

TLR7: Gene involved in the fight against certain viral infections. Located on the X chromosome, this gene could explain in part the fact that males (who only have one copy of the X chromosome) have a greater risk of hospitalization and mortality than females when infected with SARS-CoV-2.

girls by default?

Boys are boys thanks to the precocious action of ‘male’ proteins such as SRY. In the absence of male proteins, the foetus becomes a girl. So are girls, girls by default? The concept dates from the 1950s and the question remains open…

only for girls

NR0B1: This gene is essential in the development of female sexual characteristics.

approaching happiness

MAOA: Gene coding for a protein involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters which each have their say in modulating our mood.

COVID-19: a way in

ACE2: This gene codes for a protein involved in the maturation of angiotensin, a hormone that regulates blood pressure. Protein ACE2 also happens to let the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus into human cells.


AR: This gene codes for an androgen receptor which is involved in the development of the male sexual characters, and associated with male baldness.


DMD: This gene is associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, characterized by muscle paralysis.

color blindness

OPN1MW: This gene is involved in red/green colour blindness, and is generally found in boys because there is no backup copy of this gene on the Y chromosome.

Rett syndrome

MECP2: This gene is associated with Rett syndrome (mental retardation).

nerve transmission

GABRA3: This gene is involved in nerve impulse transmission.

royal illness

F8/F9: These genes are involved in blood coagulation and associated with haemophilia. The illness became infamous when Tsarevitch Alexis Nikolaïevitch of Russia suffered from it; it was transmitted to him from his great grand-mother, Queen Victoria of England.

a taxi for copper

ATP7A: This gene is involved in controlling the level of copper inside our cells.


NLGN3/NLGN4X: These genes are associated with autism.


CYBB: This gene is involved in antibacterial activity thanks to the production of free radicals.