If scientists were able to dissect a, they would find a certain number of well-defined . Just like a tool box, in which you find a hammer, a pair of pliers and a screw-driver, a is also a collection of tools or modules, which can bind to a , or cut pieces of or assemble . The set of modules determines the global of a .
Two toolboxes are rarely identical. One has two screw-drivers, a hammer and three pliers while the other has three screw-drivers, a hammer and one file. It all depends on the craftsman’s trade. The same goes for. Two that carry out different tasks can share some tools while they also own tools that are specific to their .
This picture compares the modules of ainvolved in blood clotting with those of a second involved in liver regeneration.
Both ●, whose role is to block the activity of other .have very different , yet they share the modules indicated by a
This module ● is also found in a involved in Alzheimers disease.
The inside of a craftsman’s toolbox is representative of his or her trade. In the same way, the different modules which make up acan also give an indication of its . Exploiting this type of knowledge is one of the roles of . The modules are stored in specialised . analysis will then help to identify the modules of a given and, subsequently, suggest its global … that will then need to be tested in the laboratory.
We have all heard about ‘Down Syndrome‘, also known as ‘trisomy 21‘.
Down Syndrome affects one newborn out of 800, and people suffering from it have three copies of21 in each of their , instead of the usual two. This is one of Nature’s mistakes, which takes place during the very first stages of life. One too many causes an excessive production of whose are found on 21. This imbalance is the cause of the characteristic traits found in people with Down Syndrome, such as mental retardation, a thick tongue and a small stature.