What is a genome 'sequence'?
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The human genome is composed of 3 billion nucleotides called A, G, T or C. Here is an example of a fragment of the genome: …ATTGCTTTCAAACTTTT… If you read this text at the speed of 2 letters per second, you would need about 50 years to read it all!

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Which of the following propositions is wrong?
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Proteins carry out all kinds of different tasks. Which of the following tasks do not involve proteins?
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Which of the three trees of life below is correct:
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A gene is not:
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Tick what is wrong:
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In evolution, the more distant species are, the more differences there are in their protein sequences. Knowing this, which one of the following combinations is correct?
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Tick what is wrong:
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Which of the following describes the structure of DNA?
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Though human beings have (almost) identical genomes, there are about 3 million differences between the genomes of two people! Which of the following propositions is wrong?
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What is bioinformatics?
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On earth, all forms of life come from a common ancestor (called LUCA) and are therefore all related. As a result, is it possible to say that ‘man descended from the ape’?
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These days, it is still possible to:
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If you want to be a bioinformatician, you need to:
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What is it that reveals a person's identity in their hair?
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Tick the wrong answer:
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Here is the sequence of a protein fragment, \'GATGAPGIAGAP\', which was found in the bone of a Tyrannosaurus. To which fragment below is it the most similar?
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Tyrannosaurus collagen is very similar to a chicken\'s! What can be inferred from such observations is that a species of dinosaur must have survived the mass extinction which occurred about 250 million years ago. A descendent of one of these dinosaurs is expected to be the common ancestor of all birds.

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Tick the wrong answer:
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Every cell and each tissue (liver, heart, brain...) produce different proteins. Why?
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There are a number of proteins which cause serious diseases when they are defective. Among the diseases below, which is not caused by at least one defective protein?
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AIDS is a disease brought on by a virus, and is therefore not caused by the malfunction of one or more of our proteins.

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Down syndrome is caused by the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 21 and is the most well known trisomy in humans. Why?
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Babies carrying other types of trisomy are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.

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The integrity of our genes is protected by our body because they are essential to life. However, certain genes are sometimes modified. What could be the consequences?
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Some genetic diseases (colour blindness, hemophilia, etc.) are more frequent in boys than in girls. Why?
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The genes that cause these diseases are on chromosome X, of which every girl has two copies in each of her cells (XX) and boys have one copy (XY). If a gene is ‘ill’, girls can usually ‘compensate’ with the other copy, while boys cannot.

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